Thoughts on Time Travel

Like a car, a temporal engine would be able to change the speed and direction at which we travel through time.

What makes time go faster and slower? Perception and speed, especially the speed of light.

We can see back into the past through the immense distances of space. Light brings messages from the past and sends messages from us into the future, most efficiently through a vacuum. Sound also carries messages through media other than vacuum.

Accurate descriptions facilitate solutions. Using the description time bridge rather than wormhole leads directly to the understanding that a bridge would have to be built of material other than the end points. A bridge between times would have to be made out of material that is not time based, or temporal.

Things that are not temporal have no beginning and no end; they are eternal. Things that are eternal were not created or made and are generally the abstracts like Evil, and like Truth and Peace, and God.  Interestingly, Evil and truth have no meaning to inanimate objects.  Abstract concepts have relevance and apply to sentience and intelligence only.



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Gravity Engine

In the vacuum of empty space, gravity is the main engine that powers movement.

I wonder if the mass and force of a ship shaped roughly like a rotating “barbell” would provide the components of a portable gravitational “engine”?  At a sufficient distance from larger gravitational fields, the would exert a small gravitation force on each other, which would be less than the force of the connecting bar or corridor structure.


I don’t think that changing orbital velocity would change the course at all, and gyroscopes work by using rotation to preserve direction.   Objects that are moving have less friction to overcome than things that are not moving.

Because of the forces involved, it could be helpful to design the connecting corridor to break away without damage to any part, but the problem would then be maneuvering without the “gravity engine.”

Anyway, a dumb idea is often an excellent springboard to a workable solution.


Clarification:  I meant that the two ends of the barbell shape would be rotating around each other.





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∑ k ^ -n Part 2

My post on ∑ k ^ -n from December could perhaps use some clarifying.

If C = 0 or C = 1, the sum is still simple.


In December’s post, I used k as a constant and n is more conventionally called i.  Here I am using C as the constant and using k for the i that is usually used.

C  can also have the values of positive or negative integers or decimals except for 0 and 1.

To clarify or perhaps use a slightly less opaque layer of mud:


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Safer Ships

It seems to me that the safest kinds of boats or floating islands would be to use materials that are naturally buoyant, like plastic.  A breached hull would be less catastrophic.  Thin sheets use very little plastic, but we don’t see thick structures made out of plastic as much.

Metal is prone to rust around water.  Glass is not prone to rust, but is not very buoyant.  I wonder if a foam of glass is possible?

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Sum k ^ -n

If k is not 1, this is simple.  I’ll have to look and see how that constant denominator d does.

For integer n and real k.


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More on Sums With Fractional Exponents

I found these formulas by playing around. I don’t know how to prove them with math.

By trial and error I played around and looked for patterns in numbers. I compared calculations with a spreadsheet.

Then, when I found the formula, my storage media crashed.

I suppose one way to show the source of one’s work is to show corrections. The sum of k^N had to be corrected to k/(k-1) rather than k/(k+1).


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Renewable Oil

Except for solar electric panels and petroleum-powered engines, man-made power is produced by heat-powered turbines.

This means that wood fires could power turbines as well as wood stoves to produce either electricity or mechanical power.

Unless someone can show me an inorganic process that is used in Nature to make oil, then the logical conclusion is that oil is a renewable organic product. This would mean that petroleum is made the same way all other fats and oils are made, by organic life.

Some people were saying that people will have to eat bugs because of changes in the weather. This idea disregards the fact that organic pests can be harvested for their oil.

Only life produces oil, which would make oil a renewable energy source.

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Sums of Root — update



is really just a special case of


where the constant denominator d is 1.

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Undefined Sums

The very nature of sums requires that the sum be defined when x = 1, which it often is not.

This should help.


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Sums of a Root

I like playing with math and numbers and have always liked the idea of summation formulas. This is what I played with yesterday.

I started with


I found it needed a constant modifier which resulted in


The denominator is the constant d, n1 is the first value of n, ln is the final value of n.

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